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ADVANTAGES OF AMMONIA

FUEL FOR A MINDFUL WORLD

The production of hydrogen is energy intensive and the distribution and storage is deeply problematic. Here are four key variables to consider.

Manufacturing

Manufacturing sustainable hydrogen today is limited to just one known method: electrolysis. A relatively simple process whereby an electric current splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. If the electricity used is from a renewable source such as solar or wind, the resulting hydrogen is also considered carbon-free. But the end product is also highly volatile. The challenges remain on storage, transportation and end use, which are explored below.

FuelPositive’s patent-pending first-of-its-kind Carbon-Free NH3 technology allows for the in-situ production of ammonia in an entirely sustainable manner. The process allows for small, medium to large-scale production of NH3 by utilizing only water, air and sustainable electricity.

With the appropriately sized FuelPositive system, and access to a renewable energy source such as wind, solar or hydro, the end use applications are nearly infinite.

Storage

The storage of hydrogen – by compression or liquification – has posed significant challenges to the industry. Both options are cost prohibitive and unsustainable.

Hydrogen must be compressed at a further cost of 30% of the energy contained in the hydrogen or liquified at a further cost of 40% of the energy contained in the hydrogen. But again, neither of these methods are remotely economical or sustainable.

However, if you utilize an in-situ FuelPositive Carbon-Free NH3 system, it is feasible to produce and store 65% more hydrogen by volume in ammonia since ammonia does not require nearly the amount of pressure or extreme low temperature for liquid storage, as compared to hydrogen.

Distribution

The distribution network for effective hydrogen deployment has yet to be developed. Currently, there is virtually no pure hydrogen distribution infrastructure anywhere in the world and with the extreme high-pressure distribution requirements to transport hydrogen, the network would need to be built from the ground up at enormous infrastructure cost.

With NH3 as a comparator, 200 million tons of ammonia are used worldwide every year, with the corresponding distribution infrastructure well established.

Ammonia is regularly transported in tanker trucks, through pipelines and on ships with 120 ports around the world equipped to handle NH3. Additionally, the current propane gas distribution infrastructure can be converted to handle ammonia distribution requirements.

Further, with FuelPositive’s in-situ Carbon-Free NH3 production capabilities where appropriately sized modular systems could be installed with the end user, the opportunities exist to reduce the global reliance on massive refineries, supertankers and pipelines.

End Use

Research and development on the transportation-related end use applications of hydrogen are in its infancy. How can hydrogen be safely and effectively used as a fuel? How can the global transportation sector engineer new fleets of vehicles and engines to run on hydrogen?

Meanwhile, the pathway to the use of ammonia as fuel is advancing daily. Demonstration programs are being undertaken in cars, trucks, airplanes, generators and turbines.

One of the most attractive aspects of FuelPositive’s Carbon-Free NH3 is that almost any vehicle on the road today can easily be converted, at a low cost, to run on ammonia. The conversion of an internal combustion vehicle to run on pure NH3 is very similar to the types of conversions implemented today that convert gasoline and diesel engines to operate on propane and natural gas.

FuelPositive’s Carbon-Free NH3 can deliver a completely carbon-free global fossil fuel replacement today at a considerably lower cost per kilometre travelled.
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